Outlook for television news and its audience

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  • Outlook for television news
  • Although research conducted by Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism: The State of the Media reflected on the economic decline of local news television stations, shrinking staffs, and the sharing of news content among stations, there is still hope for television reporters.

    At the annual conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Bob Papper of Hofstra University reported 45 percent of station revenue came from TV news.

    Papper also noted TV news is covering more mediums by turning to social media sites and posting its content on the web. The average local broadcaster’s salary is even up by 2.5 percent.

    With these positive statistics, it seems that TV news may just be going through a rough patch with the creation of new technology. But once TV broadcasters learn how to use this technology to their advantage, the state of television news will hopefully improve.

  • How people get their news
  • In a survey by the Pew Research Center, 58 percent of Americans said they watched the news on TV yesterday. This number has not changed much over the last ten years, which is reassuring to television reporters as viewership has remained stable.

    However, using the Internet to consume news is growing.

    In a Pew Internet report, it states after local and national television news, the Internet is the most used platform to consume news. It also says 92 percent of Americans consume news using multiple platforms.

    The chart below, made by the Pew Research Center, shows the percentage of how people of different ages consume news.

  • Using the Internet to increase viewership
  • It is beneficial for television news stations to use web sites and social media to add to their content and expand audience viewership.

    With station web sites, news stations can delve deeper into the content of a minute-thirty video package.

    Using social media sites, such as having a twitter account or Facebook fan page, enables communication and interaction between the viewer and the reporter because the viewer is able to give feed back to the reporter or comment on a report, and the reporter can respond.

    This communication creates a relationship between the newscasters and viewers, and therefore the potential for more loyal audience members.

    As seen from the chart above, a larger percent of people over the age of 40 turn to the TV for news compared to people under the age of 39. Using twitter could help increase younger viewership because 33 percent of twitter users are between 18 to 29-years-old while 22 percent are between 30 to 49-years-old.

    If a twitter user sees a tweet about the latest story a reporter is covering or a link to a video package they might be more drawn to the station and could become another viewer.

  • Know the demographics of your audience to improve viewership
  • Reporters should familiarize themselves with the cities/state where they work. Know the make-up of your viewers and what interests them.

    If you are a reporter who works at a station in a military town, try to find story ideas or angles that relate to or affect the military or their family. If you live in an eco-friendly community try to find stories about the environment or tie it into your story.

    People like to hear about things that directly impact them or are relatable. Knowing who lives in the city you are covering can help produce more engaging stories if the reporter considers the audiences’ interests.

    When pitching story ideas think about….
    1. Who cares? Who does this affect?
    2. What is the impact?
    3. How can I make this story more interesting for my audience?


    Reporting using Voice

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  • Put stress and emphasis on words to give them meaning
  • A reporter’s voice affects the meaning of a report. How a reporter says something creates a certain tone and clearly points out key facts.

    It is important for the reporter to give value and meaning to their words.

    Main points of the report may not be clear if the reporter does not put emphasis on key words by changing the pitch, tone, or inflection of their voice.

    Lowering your voice, or using a downward inflection, when saying a key word stresses certainty and conveys a more serious tone. Raising your voice, or using an upward inflection, when saying a key word conveys doubt, uncertainty or excitement.

    Speaking in a monotone voice will lose the audiences’ attention, as there is no variation or excitement portrayed in the report. If a reporter speaks in a monotone voice, viewers may perceive the reporter as uninterested in the story.

  • Use a conversational, but authoritative voice
  • Voice coach Ann Utterback recommends broadcasters to speak like they are talking to a good friend. This conversational tone creates a better relationship with the audience because the reporter sounds like he or she is engaging in a personal conversation with the viewer.

    Reporters should also speak with a lower pitch to sound more authoritative so audience members feel confident in their reporting abilities and credibility.

    However, be careful not to completely abandon your natural voice, because an obnoxious theatrical news voice can distract the viewer from the story, which is the main focus.

  • Vary speaking pace and always articulate
  • Talking quickly portrays an excited tone. Talking slowly portrays a more serious tone.
    A reporter’s pace should reflect the moods of a story.

    Broadcast reporters must be careful not talk too quickly that the audience does not understand what the reporter is saying or too slowly as they might sound boring.

    Broadcast reporters only have one chance to present their message because the viewer does not always have the option to watch the report again, unlike print where the reader can reread a sentence as many times as they desire.

    Articulating will help ensure viewers understand every word.

  • Example of good use of voice:
  • Reporter Elissa Harrington effectively uses her voice to emphasis certain words to highlight the intensity of the San Bruno gas line explosion in California.

    In Harrington’s live shot, she puts emphasis on the location and time of the explosion so it is clear to viewers where and when the explosion occurred, so they know if the explosion affects them or anyone they know.

    When she says the authorities are not letting anyone back into the area of the explosion, she raises her voice on the word “anyone.” By emphasizing the word “anyone,” Harrington has made it clear people should not return to the area as it is still unsafe.

    She also emphasizes words such as “huge,” “loud,” “giant, and the word “never” in the phrase “things will never be the same,” by slowing her pace of voice and using inflection, giving the viewers a clear understanding of the devastating magnitude of the explosion.

    Harrington effectively tells the urgency of the situation when she stresses the word “seconds” when she describes how much time people in the area had time to evacuate.

    Throughout the live shot Harrington speaks in an authoritative tone by using a lower pitch of voice, establishing herself as a credible source for information.

    Reporting using Gestures

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  • Why motions and gestures are important
  • When reporters use motions and gestures to tell a story, they appeal to 65 percent of the population who are visual learners. These viewers better remember information when reporters use gestures that incorporate or emphasize key points of their story.

    Gestures and motions make the reporting feel more natural. People do not tend to stand completely stiff while talking to a friend. Moving and using natural antics during a report make the reporter more conversational, creating a better relationship with the audience.

    Reporter Joscelyn Moes demonstrates how to effectively use gestures and motions in her professional reel.

    Moes’ hand movements are natural and not over done. Her gestures are not too subtle that viewers question what she is doing, but are not too exaggerated that they look comedic.

  • How hand motions and gestures help guide the viewer through the story
  • In the first clip of her professional reel, Moes stands in front of the camera and then steps aside to let the viewers see debris from an explosion. By stepping aside to reveal the extent of the damage, it is more dramatic and therefore engaging.

    The tactic of delaying the viewer from seeing what the reporter is discussing should not be used in all reports, as it is not necessarily dramatic if she steps aside for the audience to see a library.

    In another segment from Moes’ professional reel, she sweeps her hand in front of her body to point out the fallen tree branches from a storm while the videographer simultaneously directs the camera to the broken branches. The audience naturally looks to where Moes directs them, allowing the story to flow.

    She successfully uses these motions to guide the viewer visually through her story, a quality that Joan Curtis, founder of Total Communication Coaching, says is effective in engaging your audience.

  • Pairing words with action
  • Putting action to words allows viewers to better understand and remember the story.

    Even when Moes doesn’t have something tangible to show the audience, she tends to move her hands when she says a key word or phrase to emphasize its importance, making the critical point clear to the viewer.

    Deborah Potter, executive director of NewsLab, mentions how important it is to match words to visuals for the audience to better understand and remember a story in the article, “Broadcast and Online Journalism.”

    Moes pairs actions with her words or touches an object related to the story she is covering, creating a more dynamic and memorable report.

  • Using movement to create a more engaging piece
  • In another segment of Moes’ professional reel, she kneels down to focus the audience’s attention on gravel like material planes drop to extinguish wild fires. She also picks up the material and tosses it at the camera.

    When she reports on the dangers of driving during winter, she picks up a chunk of ice to help visually explain why accidents occur.

    These actions make her report more creative, which Joe Little says is the most important thing in a stand-up because people have personalities and want to see something interesting versus a reporter who only stands and talks in the video.